Artwork should be of good
quality and clean, with clear lettering, sharp black lines, and sides
trimmed straight. Photocopies are not acceptable. The scanner faithfully
reproduces all smudges, crooked or broken lines, and stray marks. Tape,
creases, and other surface irregularities may produce shadows that the
scanner will render as black. Artwork submitted on colored paper (not
pure white) may also pose a problem when scanning.
Although we encourage authors to submit artwork electronically (see
Guidelines for Submission of Digital Art), we also require, in all
cases, a hard copy.
Artwork Created with Microsoft PowerPoint, MS Word, or WordPerfect
The graphics created in these programs are low-resolution images that
are not suitable for professional reproduction. Graphics created using
PowerPoint, Word, or WordPerfect are acceptable only if they are line
images, with no gray, color, or shading, and only if they are printed
from a high-quality laser printer (see Line Art). Only hard copies of
line art created with these programs will be accepted; do not submit
electronic PowerPoint, Word, or WordPerfect files.
Graphics downloaded from Web pages are not acceptable for print
reproduction. These graphics are low-resolution images (usually 72 dpi)
that are suitable for screen display but far below acceptable standards
for print reproduction.
The only exception to this rule is a screen capture of a Web page that
is being discussed or reviewed (see Guidelines for Submission of Digital
Cropping and Sizing
Your artwork will be cropped and sized for publication. If you want to
be certain that a particular area of your image is excluded or included,
please indicate where the image should be cropped.
Figures will be printed either in a single column (20 picas or 85 mm) or
across two columns (2541.5 picas or 106176 mm). Artwork is generally not
enlarged, as the quality of the image may be compromised. If possible,
figures should be submitted in the size at which they will be published.
Please be consistent with type (both font and size) within a figure.
Since most figures are reduced, figures employing more than one font
size may, after reduction, contain both text that is too small to read
and text that is so large as to be awkward. After reduction, all text
should be readable but not excessively large. Of course, some variation
in the size of letters may be necessary to emphasize elements in a
figure or to fit lettering in a limited space; however, please try to
use no more than a 2-point variation in your type sizes.
Please use the same font type for all figures in your article; use
standard fonts such as Times, Courier, Arial, Helvetica, or Symbol. Sans
serif fonts such as Arial and Helvetica are ideal and should be used
If the figures in your article contain units of measurement, please
label these units consistently. Make sure abbreviations are consistent
with those used in the text and the legend.
Avoid placing labels over shaded areas of a figure. Best results are
obtained from black lettering on a white background. If the area
requiring a label contains shading, it is best to create a white box and
place the black label within.
Figures consisting of more than one panel should include uppercase panel
designations ("A," "B," "C," etc.). Whenever possible, include all
panels of a figure on the same page.
Omit any extraneous information, such as page numbers, figure numbers,
author names, or manuscript number, from the figure. Such information
should be marked on the back of the figurenot included as part of the
actual image. Figures themselves should not contain a title or text that
is duplicated in the figure legend. Figure legends should be included on
a separate page, with the manuscript.
If the artwork you are submitting has been published elsewhere or is
otherwise copyrighted, we must have a letter of permission from the
copyright holder in order to use the image. In addition, if the artwork
is not your own, we will need information about its source.
GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFIC TYPES OF ARTWORK
Avoid the use of gray or color in bar graphs. Instead, please use solid
black, solid white, and patterned (e.g., horizontally or diagonally
striped) bars. If a bar graph must contain gray shading or color, please
submit a high-resolution, glossy print.
Please refrain from submitting "three-dimensional" bar graphs unless
there is a compelling reason for the information to be rendered in three
dimensions. The information in most bar graphs can be adequately
rendered in two dimensions, and making a bar graph three-dimensional
only obfuscates the data.
Always submit sharp, laser printouts for line art. Dot matrix printouts
Line art is best reproduced when it is submitted as a crisp
black-and-white image and contains no unnecessary gray shading. Gray
areas scan unevenly, which often results in unwanted "moiré" patterns.
If gray must be used in the figure, the figure must adhere to all
requirements for halftone images (see Halftones).
Avoid thin lines, particularly in figures requiring considerable
reduction. Do not use lines that are thinner than 2 points, and do not
use the "hairline" width option that many computer programs offer.
If your image requires the use of many lines (as line graphs often do),
please choose patterns that are easily distinguished from each other.
Patterns with similar characteristics are hard to differentiate after
Halftones are any images that contain gray. Halftones must be submitted
as high-resolution prints or slides. When using gray, make sure to use
shading with at least a 25% variation in gradation or it may become
difficult to distinguish between different elements in your figure.
Photomicrographs should show only the most pertinent area of the
material being studied. A micron bar or appropriate scale marking must
appear on the figure.
Photographs can be submitted as high-resolution prints or slides. Color
photographs will appear in color only in the online version of the
journal. Black and white versions will be produced by the publisher for
the print version.
Color images must be submitted as high-resolution prints or slides.
Again, color art will appear in color only in the online version of the
journal. Black and white versions will be produced by the publisher for
the print verison. For this reason if submitting a graph or likewise
artwork in color please make sure that the colors you use will work well
when converted to greyscale. Use contrasting colors with diffent tones
(ie: a dark blue and a dark red will not work seeing as their tones are
too similar; when converted to greyscale the resulting greys will be
GUIDELINES FOR THE SUBMISSION OF DIGITAL ART
We use author-supplied electronic art whenever possible. However, we
require authors to submit a hard copy as well, in case the electronic
file is unusable. We can accept electronic graphic files only in JPEG*,
PSD, PNG or bit-mapped EPS format. Files created with Adobe Photoshop
produce the best results.
*A note on JPEGs: JPEG file formats use a "lossy" compression which
depending on the setting will render a file unsuitable for print
standards. If at all possible please avoid submitting electronic files
in JPEG format. If this is unavoidable please be sure to save the JPEG
at the highest quality available and at the correct resolution for what
type of artwork it is.
Method of Transfer
We accept image files submitted to email address
eManuscript Central System for directly Submit
Article of Reflections, Case Reports, Original Articles, Short
Communication, Subject Revision, Legislation and An Image in Forensic
Oral Pathology. Please do not compress files.
Graphics downloaded or saved from Web pages are not acceptable for
print. These graphics are low-resolution images (usually 72 dpi) and,
although they may look fine on the screen, are far below an acceptable
quality needed for print. The one exception applies to browser windows
captured for articles that discuss or review a Web site.
Line art must be prepared as a bit-map image and submitted as a JPEG,
PSD, PNG or bit-mapped EPS format file. Optimum resolution for black and
white bit-map files is 800 dpi. The file should be sized for
publication, as described in Cropping and Sizing, above. Avoid using
gray in line art. If the use of gray is unavoidable, the graphic must be
prepared as a gray-scale image. Optimum resolution for this type of file
is 600 dpi.
Halftone figures must be prepared as a gray-scale images and submitted
as JPEG, PSD, PNG or bit-mapped EPS format files. Optimum resolution for
halftones is 300 dpi.
Black and white photographs must be prepared in the same way as
halftones listed above. For color photographs please submit them using
the following Color Art guidelines.
Color figures must be prepared as EPS files with binary encoding but
without a JPEG, PSD, PNG or bit-mapped EPS format preview. Optimum
resolution for color figure files is 300 dpi.
The one exception to the rule about Internet graphics is browser windows
captured for review. Such captures should be prepared as follows:
1) In your browser, open the Web page you want to capture.
2) Maximize the browser window so it fills your screen. This will make
the resulting image as large as possible and will make the aspect ratio
of the images for this section consistent.
3) Capture the image of the window: If you are running Macintosh OS,
press command+shift+4+caps lock and click on the window you want to
capture. A PICT file containing the image of the window will be saved to
your desktop. If you are running Windows, press alt+PrintScrn. A bit-map
of the current window will be copied to the Windows clipboard.
4) Open a graphics application such as Photoshop. If you are running Mac
OS, open the PICT file and save the image as a JPEG, PSD, PNG or
bit-mapped EPS format file. 5) If you are running Windows, open a new
document, paste the contents of the clipboard into it, and save the
image in JPEG, PSD, PNG or bit-mapped EPS format format. If you do not
have access to a graphics application that allows you to save graphics
as JPEG, PSD, PNG or bit-mapped EPS format files, we will accept PICT or
BMP files for this section only.